CONFLICT OVER STATE FOREST LANDS OF INDONESIA:
A CASE OF FOREST REGION IN EAST JAVA
I Nyoman Nurjaya *)
Paper presented at The 1st. Annual International Graduate Research Conference on Social Sciences and Humanities – Theme “Harmony and Diversity ”, organized by Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mahidol University, Thailand on April 2 – 3, 2009 at SD Avenue Hotel, Bangkok, Thailand.
Within Indonesia, Java presents an especially interesting and important arena for understanding the forest control and manage¬ment and impacts of these controls on dependent-forest peo¬ple. The Government defines that around 3 million hectares of Java’s State forest region are under the management of State-owned Forestry Corporation (Perum Perhu¬tani) to control and manage the forest of Java. The differences between Perum Perhutani and the dependent-forest people access and interest create tense relations and conflict over forest resources, and forest lands in particular, namely conflicts between State foresters and forest villagers over forest resources. The study shows that conflicts over forest lands between the State foresters and the dependent-forest villagers is mainly caused by the differential access and perception to forest resources, the increasing need of the people over forest lands, as well as the lack of coordination between State Forest Corporation and the Regional Govern-ment of East Java in managing forest resources in the region. Understanding pattern of conflicts between Perum Perhutani and the forest villagers requires some knowledge of historical background of forest control and management in the region. Therefore, forest-based conflict must be studied in histori¬cally specific context namely the historical background of forest control and management during both the Dutch colonial Government and Japanese Army invasions in the country in order to obtain prudently dispute settle¬ment strategy over forest resources on Java.
*) Teaching staff Faculty of Law Brawijaya University, Indonesia (email@example.com)